Biological Invasions in Forests: An IUFRO Task Force
Types of Organisms
Forests are increasingly invaded by non-native organisms representing nearly every taxon. Invading species include both woody and herbaceous plants, animals including mammals, other vertebrates, arthropods and nematodes, as well as a variety of microorganisms such as fungi, oomycetes, bacteria, archaea and viruses. Insects tend to be the most species-rich group of invaders, which reflects the exceptional diversity of insects worldwide. The proportions of mammals invading forests versus other habitats are greater than those of insects and plants; this likely reflects the fact that most mammals were introduced intentionally, and forest-dwelling species were often selected. While plant invasions are common in forests world wide, the proportion of plant invasions in forests is relatively small compared to other habitats, most notably grasslands and agriculture lands.
Forest Pathogen Invasions
Forest Insect Invasions
Forest Mammal Invasions
Forest Plant Invasions
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